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Tracking militarists’ efforts to influence U.S. foreign policy

Eric Edelman


eric-edelman
    • United States Institute for Peace: Board Member
    • Foreign Policy Initiative: Board Member
    • Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments: Distinguished Fellow
    • Undersecretary of Defense for Policy (2005-2009)
    • Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs: Co-Chairman, Iran Task Force

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Eric S. Edelman, a former U.S. diplomat and adviser to Vice President Dick Cheney, has supported a number of militarist policy initiatives. He is a founding board member of the Foreign Policy Initiative, an advocacy group founded in 2009 by neoconservative figures William Kristol, Robert Kagan, and Dan Senor widely regarded as a successor group to the Project for the New American Century. He also served as a key foreign policy adviser to Mitt Romney's presidential campaign in 2012 and helped launch a new pressure group dedicated to pressing a hawkish GOP line in the 2016 presidential campaign.

In 2014, Edelman joined the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) as a co-chair of its Iran Task Force, which has pushed a hard line on Iran's nuclear enrichment program. He has also worked as a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA),[1] as a visiting scholar at the Philip Merrill Center for Strategic Studies, and as a senior associate of the International Security Program at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University. He as also appointed to the board member of the U.S. Institute for Peace in 2011.[2]

Although Edelman does not have the same reputation for divisiveness common among many of his colleagues in the neoconservative think tank work, observers have highlighted Edelman's close associations within that world and frequent support for their policy agendas. The Inter Press Service once reported that when Edelman was tapped to serve as the successor to embattled undersecretary of defense Douglas Feith in 2005, it was due largely to support from the likes of Cheney and Richard Perle. Edelman "is a career foreign service officer with neoconservative views, albeit not as radical as those of his ultra-Likudist predecessor [Feith]. Although he has worked for Democratic appointees, most recently former Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott, Edelman's ties to Cheney are of long standing," reported IPS Lobe, which added that Edelman's Pentagon office had coordinated "closely with Devon Gaffney Cross' London-based Policy Forum on International Security Affairs, a neoconservative outfit that quietly conducts public diplomacy for the Pentagon's policy shop and various like-minded Washington-based think tanks."[3]

During the Obama Administration

Edelman has been an active GOP critic of the Obama administration's foreign policy.

In March 2012, Edelman contributed his name to an open letter to President Barack Obama lambasting the president's record on foreign policy and claiming that his administration was marked by "weakness and inconstancy." Signatories claimed that the president was weakening America by cutting back on missile defense, going easy on Russia, pressuring "the Israelis to grant one-sided concessions to the Palestinians," and cutting the military budget. Signatories to the letter included John Bolton, Eliot Cohen, Robert Joseph, Robert Kagan, Dan Senor, and Walid Phares, who served along with Edelman as foreign policy advisers to the Mitt Romney presidential campaign.[4]

In a Boston Globe op-ed coauthored with fellow Romney advisers Meghan O'Sullivan and Eliot Cohen shortly before the election, Edelman argued: "Because of the last four years, we face a world in which our enemies do not fear us, our friends do not believe they can trust us, and those who maneuver between the two camps feel that they will not get in trouble by crossing us."[5]

In early 2013, Edelman and other Romney campaign alums joined to form the "John Hay Initiative." The aim of the group is to influence potential 2016 GOP presidential candidates. Its more than 150 members include prominent militarists such as Eliot Cohen, Michael Chertoff, and former Sen. Norm Coleman. Mitt Romney himself is on the group's advisory council.

In September 2014, Edelman argued in a Washington Post op-ed written with Michele Flournoy, a former Obama administration undersecretary of defense for policy and noted "liberal hawk," that military spending should be increased to "sustain the rules-based international order that underpins U.S. security and prosperity." The two called for an immediate repeal of the Budget Control Act, which provided for the "sequestration" cuts much loathed by foreign policy hawks, and a "return, at a minimum, to funding levels proposed by then-Defense Secretary Robert Gates in his fiscal 2012 budget." Edelman and Flouroy further argued that "the U.S. military must be able to deter or stop aggression in multiple theaters, not just one, even when engaged in a large-scale war."[6]

On several occasions, Edelman has criticized the Obama administration's policies toward Russia. In 2013, for example, he accused the White House of making a "number of unnecessary concessions in the New START Treaty," a nuclear arms-reduction agreement between the United States and Russia ratified by the Senate in 2012.[7] Edelman has said the treaty "should concern those who believe in a strong and secure America able to deter and defend against attacks on the U.S. homeland and on the country's friends and allies."[8]

Edelman urged an aggressive U.S. response to Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Crimean peninsula and support for pro-Russian rebels in Ukraine's eastern regions. In a Weekly Standard commentary, Edelman called for the United States "to dispatch a military needs assessment team to identify crucial shortfalls in the Ukrainian military and to lay the basis for urgent and longer-term military assistance programs on a bilateral U.S.-Ukraine basis."[9]

Edelman has also pushed for greater involvement of NATO in Ukraine, arguing that NATO should "help share intelligence with the Ukrainians" and "assist them with planning a more targeted NATO military assistance program." Edelman has called on NATO to "consider whether and how it wants to position ground combat forces on the territory of the former Warsaw Pact states that now are members of NATO." Edelman has even pushed for the deployment of nuclear weapons in these states, saying NATO should "reconsider the so-called three no's—no intention, no plan, no reason to deploy nuclear weapons on the territory of the new NATO members."[10] (Edelman's advice stood in direct contrast to the advice of experts like John Mearsheimer, who has argued that NATO and EU expansion into the former states of the Soviet Union is seen by Russia as a threat, helping to precipitate aggressive Russian maneuvering in Ukraine in the first place.)[11]

Edelman has also taken a hawkish line on Iran. In January 2011, Edelman co-wrote, with two CSBA colleagues, an article for Foreign Affairs titled "The Dangers of a Nuclear Iran: The Limits of Containment." The article argued that the United States should pursue an approach "that brings diplomacy and sanctions, clandestine action, and the threat of military force into alignment." According to Edelman and his coauthors, "Although finding a peaceful way to preclude Iran from getting nuclear weapons is obviously desirable, Washington will likely have to decide between two unattractive options: pursuing a military strike to prevent Iran from going nuclear or implementing a containment strategy to live with a nuclear Iran."[12] However, U.S. intelligence assessments had long maintained that Iran was not currently developing a nuclear weapon.

Edelman has been wary of reaching a negotiated settlement with Iran over its nuclear program. Regarding the ongoing diplomacy aimed at reaching a comprehensive settlement over the Iranian nuclear impasse, Edelman and longtime Iran hawk Dennis Ross wrote in a May 2014 report for the neoconservative think-tank JINSA, "How can a regime with such ingrained radical policies be entrusted with sensitive nuclear technologies?"[13] Edelman has urged the need to keep the threat of military action against Iran alive during negotiations, saying in a July 2014 report for JINSA, "To peacefully prevent a nuclear Iran, American policymakers must use all available instruments of coercive diplomacy to restore credibility to their mantra that the United States is keeping all options on the table. They must do this promptly and resolutely." In this regard, the report called for "augmenting the credibility of both the U.S. and Israeli military options."[14]

In addition to threatening military action, Edelman has argued that United States should also "threaten even deeper sanctions against energy and other vital economic sectors that would take effect if an acceptable deal is not concluded by the interim deadline."[15]

Bryan Gibson of Middle East Eye countered that JINSA's recommendations "do not seem to be designed to maximize America's interests, but rather Israel's." Observing that "Iran appears to be living up to its obligations under the JPA" (the interim nuclear deal worked out in November 2013), Gibson noted that the report's hard line against Iranian "nuclear capability" was closer to Israel's position than that of the Obama administration, which has assented to a scaled back Iranian enrichment capability.

Edelman also supported U.S. intervention in Syria's civil war over the Syrian regime's alleged use of chemical weapons in 2013. Edelman linked the issue to the U.S. standoff with Iran, arguing if the United States does not "enforce the WMD norm in Syria," Iran would "not put too much stock in the threat of the use of force if they don't negotiate an end to their nuclear weapons program."[16]

Although not typically grouped with the hawks and neoconservatives who helped push for an expansive "war on terror" in the Middle East after the 9/11 attacks, Edelman was an outspoken and sometimes controversial defender of the Bush administration's foreign policies. For example, in July 2007 he sent an alarmist letter to then-Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton (D-NY), arguing that her efforts to push the Pentagon to begin planning for the withdrawal of troops from Iraq was a boon to terrorists. He wrote, "Premature and public discussion of the withdrawal of U.S. forces from Iraq reinforces enemy propaganda that the United States will abandon its allies in Iraq, much as we are perceived to have done in Vietnam, Lebanon, and Somalia."[17]

The letter infuriated a number of people, including Clinton, whose spokesperson told the Associated Press that it was "at once outrageous and dangerous."[18] Responding to an inquiry from Talking Points Memo, Defense Secretary Robert Gates appeared to distance himself from Edelman's letter, saying in an e-mail statement, "I have long been a staunch advocate of Congressional oversight, first at the CIA and now at the Defense Department. I have said on several occasions in recent months that I believe that congressional debate on Iraq has been constructive and appropriate."[19]

In the Bush Administration

President George W. Bush named Edelman ambassador to Turkey a few months after the U.S. invasion of Iraq in March 2003. It was widely speculated at the time that Edelman was named to this key post not only because of his close ties to administration hardliners, but also because of his family connections to Turkey. Edelman's grandmother fled Russia in the early 1920s, and his mother was born in Turkey. His great-uncle taught at Ankara University.[20]

As the face of the Bush administration's efforts to pressure an uncooperative Turkish government to aid the U.S. war in Iraq, Edelman became a lightning rod for deepening anti-U.S. sentiment brought on by the conflict.

The Turkish columnist Ibrahim Karagul described Edelman as "probably the least-liked and trusted American ambassador in Turkish history." In a column for the newspaper Yeni Safak, Karagul wrote, "Considering the range of his activities, his statements which violate the decorum of democracy, and his interest in Turkey's internal affairs, Eric Edelman acts more like a colonial governor than an ambassador. Edelman's actions have exceeded his diplomatic mission. His 'interest' in nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the Turkish media, and ethnic minorities make him go beyond his role as an ambassador. His presence here has never contributed to Turkish-American relations, and it never will. If we want to address the reasons for anti-Americanism, Edelman must be issue one. As long as Edelman stays in Turkey, the chill wind disturbing bilateral relations will last."[21]

In early 2005, Edelman was nominated to as undersecretary of defense for policy, replacing Douglas Feith, the controversial aide to Donald Rumsfeld who resigned at the end of Bush's first term.[22] At the time of his nomination, many regarded him as a potential candidate for the number-two spot at the State Department after Condoleezza Rice became secretary of state. The Washington Post's Al Kamen wrote at the time, "The latest name du jour for deputy secretary of state is Eric S. Edelman who is seen as someone—perhaps the only one on the planet—who can comfortably straddle all the relevant political worlds. He's a career foreign service officer, a former ambassador to Finland who also worked for then-Secretary of State George P. Shultz and for Clinton Ambassador-at-Large Strobe Talbott. But he also worked for Defense Secretary Richard B. Cheney from 1990 to 1993 and for Vice President Cheney from 2001 to 2003 and with Secretary of State-designate Condoleezza Rice frequently when he represented Cheney at top-level meetings."[23]

Early Career

Edelman began his government career in the Reagan administration. While completing his doctorate in history at Yale University, Edelman joined the U.S. Middle East Delegation to the West Bank/Gaza Autonomy Talks. He then became a special assistant to Secretary of State George Shultz. In 1990, Edelman moved from the State Department to the Pentagon, where he served as assistant deputy undersecretary of defense for Soviet and East European affairs.

Edelman served under then-Defense Secretary Dick Cheney during the administration of George H.W. Bush. At that time, he became part of a "shop" within the Pentagon that was set up by Cheney "to think about American foreign policy after the Cold War, at the grand strategic level," wrote Nicholas Lehman in the New Yorker.[24]

The work of this shop, which was headed by Paul Wolfowitz, eventually led to the crafting of the 1992 Draft Defense Planning Guidance, a document that was meant to serve as a post-Cold War framework for U.S. military strategy. Others working on the guidance were Zalmay Khalilzad and I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby. According to Lehman, the guidance team was "generally speaking, a cohesive group of conservatives who regard themselves as bigger-thinking, tougher-minded, and intellectually bolder than most other people in Washington."[25] However, its plans, which called for actively promoting U.S. predominance throughout much of the world, proved too ambitious for Bush Senior and congressional Democrats. Although the initial draft was immediately retracted after being leaked to the press, it served as a framework for neoconservative advocacy during the 1990s, and many of its ideas resurfaced in President George W. Bush's post-9/11 national security strategy.

During the Clinton administration, Edelman moved back to the State Department. As ambassador-at-large and special advisor to the Secretary of State for the Newly Independent States, Edelman oversaw defense, security, and space issues, among other later positions in the administration.

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Sources

[1] Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, "Ambassador Eric Edelman Joins CSBA," CSBA press release, June 1, 2009.http://www.csbaonline.org/4Publications/PubLibrary/P.20090601.Ambassador_Eric_Ed/P.20090601.Ambassador_Eric_Ed.php.

[2] USIP, "U.S. Senate Confirms Eric Edelman as New USIP Board Member,"August 12, 2011, http://www.usip.org/newsroom/news/us-senate-confirms-eric-edelman-new-usip-board-member.

[3] Jim Lobe, "The Edelman-Cheney Connection," Lobelog, July 31, 2007, http://www.lobelog.com/the-cheney-edelman-connection/.

[4] Roberta Costa, "Romney Advisers Send an Open Letter to Obama, Demand 'Candor' on Foreign Policy,"National Review Online, March 27, 2012 , http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/294509/romney-advisers-send-open-letter-obama-demand-candor-foreign-policy-robert-costa.

[5] Eliot Cohen, Eric Edelman, Meghan O'Sullivan, "Obama's Failed Foreign Policy," Boston Globe, November 1, 2012, available at http://www.cfr.org/us-election-2012/obamas-failed-foreign-policy/p29412.

[6] Michele Flournoy and Eric Edelman, "Cuts to defense spending are hurting our national security," The Washington Post, September 19, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/cuts-to-us-military-spending-are-hurting-our-national-security/2014/09/18/6db9600c-3abf-11e4-9c9f-ebb47272e40e_story.html.

[7] Courtney Coren and John Bachman, "Ambassador Eric Edelman: US Cannot Be Indifferent to Syrian Conflict," Newsmax, September 6, 2013, http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/edelman-us-syria-conflict/2013/09/06/id/524294/.

[8] Robert Joseph and Eric Edelman, "Time for Kerry to Face Facts," Foreign Policy, May 6, 2013, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/05/06/time_for_kerry_to_face_facts.

[9] Eric Edelman, "Confronting Putin's Invasion," The Weekly Standard, March 17, 2014, http://www.weeklystandard.com/articles/confronting-putin-s-invasion_784282.html?page=2.

[10] Eric Edelman, "Confronting Putin's Invasion," The Weekly Standard, March 17, 2014, http://www.weeklystandard.com/articles/confronting-putin-s-invasion_784282.html?page=2.

[11] John Mearsheimer, "Why the Ukraine Crisis Is the West's Fault," Foreign Affairs, September/October 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141769/john-j-mearsheimer/why-the-ukraine-crisis-is-the-wests-fault.

[12] Eric S. Edelman, Andrew F. Krepinevich, and, Evan Braden Montgomery, ""The Dangers of a Nuclear Iran: The Limits of Containment," Foreign Affairs, January/February 2011 , http://www.csbaonline.org/4Publications/PubLibrary/A.20101227.The_Dangers_of_a_N/A.20101227.The_Dangers_of_a_N.pdf.

[13] Eric Edelman and Dennis Ross, "Impact of Interim Deal with Iran," JINSA, May 2014, http://www.jinsa.org/files/ImpactOfInterimDealWithIran.pdf.

[14] Eric Edelman and Dennis Ross, "Improving the Prospects for an Acceptable Final Deal with Iran," JINSA, July 2014 , http://www.jinsa.org/files/ImprovingProspectsForAcceptableFinalDealWithIran.pdf.

[15] Eric Edelman and Dennis Ross, "Improving the Prospects for an Acceptable Final Deal with Iran," JINSA, July 2014 , http://www.jinsa.org/files/ImprovingProspectsForAcceptableFinalDealWithIran.pdf.

[16] Courtney Coren and John Bachman, "Ambassador Eric Edelman: US Cannot Be Indifferent to Syrian Conflict," Newsmax, September 6, 2013, http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/edelman-us-syria-conflict/2013/09/06/id/524294/.

[17] Devlin Barrett, "Pentagon Challenges Clinton's Iraq Talk," Associated Press, July 19, 2007.

[18] Devlin Barrett, "Pentagon Challenges Clinton's Iraq Talk," Associated Press, July 19, 2007.

[19] Greg Sargent, "Gates Distances Himself from Edelman's Attacks on Hillary Clinton," Talking Points Memo, July 20, 2007.

[20] John Hendren, "Rumsfeld is Getting His Players in Position," Los Angeles Times, March 30, 2005; State Department, Biography of Eric S. Edelman (Web Archive) , http://web.archive.org/web/20041019133415/http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/biog/24997.htm.

[21] K. Gajendra Singh, "U.S.-Turkish Relations Go Wobbly Now Over Syria," Al Jazeera, March 23, 2005.

[22] U.S. Department of Defense, "Eric S. Edelman, Undersecretary of Defense for Policy," http://web.archive.org/web/20070811101918/http://www.defenselink.mil/bios/biographydetail.aspx?biographyid=45 (Web Archive).

[23] Al Kamen, "In the Loop," Washington Post, December 3, 2004, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A29741-2004Dec2.html.

[24] Nicholas Lehman, "The Next World Order," New Yorker, April 1, 2002, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/04/01/the-next-world-order.

[25] Nicholas Lehman, "The Next World Order," New Yorker, April 1, 2002, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/04/01/the-next-world-order.

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Eric Edelman Résumé

    Affiliations

    • Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs: Co-Chairman, Iran Task Force
    • United States Institute for Peace: Board Member(2011- )
    • Foreign Policy Initiative: Member, Board of Directors (2010- )
    • Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments: Distinguished Fellow (2009- )
    • Philip Merrill Center for Strategic Studies: Fellow
    • Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs: Associate

    Government

    • Defense Department: Undersecretary of Defense for Policy (2005-2009); Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Soviet and East European Affairs (1990-1993)
    • Office of the Vice President: Principal Deputy Assistant for National Security Affairs (2001-2003)
    • State Department: Ambassador to the Republic of Turkey (2003-2005); Ambassador to the Republic of Finland (1998-2001); Executive Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of State (1996-1998); Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy, Prague, Czech Republic (1994-1996); Ambassador-at-Large and Special Advisor to the Secretary of State on the Newly Independent States (1993); Special Assistant (European Affairs) to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs (1989-1990); Head of External Political Section at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow (1987-1989); Head of Soviet Policies in the Third World at the Office of Soviet Affairs (1984-1986); Special Assistant to Secretary of State George P. Shultz (1982-1984); Staff Officer on the Secretariat Staff (1982); Watch Officer in the State Department Operations Center (1981-1982); Member of the U.S. Middle East Delegation to the West Bank/Gaza Autonomy Talks Delegations (1980-1981)

    Education

    • Cornell University: B.A., History and Government (1972)
    • Yale University: Ph.D., U.S. Diplomatic History (1981)

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